Multiple Intelligences




Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences


Howard Gardner’s theory suggests that our school systems have been teaching two primary kinds of intelligences and neglecting other equally important intelligences.  He has proposed that there are at least eight kinds of intelligences and when this theory is applied in the educational setting, there is an increase in successful student achievement.


Gardner’s multiple intelligences, understanding the various areas where individuals can demonstrate particular strengths and weaknesses is a first step in understanding self as learner. Gardner proposed that there are several areas in which people can excel, with no one area receiving any more emphasis or weight than the other areas. These areas of multiple intelligences include: interpersonal, intrapersonal, musical, naturalist, bodily kinesthetic, logical-mathematical, verbal-linguistic and visual-spatial.


Traditional formal education emphasizes the verbal-linguistic and logical-mathematical intelligences over the other areas of intellect. The challenge for the learner and the facilitator is to integrate curricula that include equal emphasis on all areas of intelligence so equal learning opportunities are provided to all learners. 


This simple grid diagram illustrates Howard Gardner’s model of the seven Multiple Intelligences at a glance.


Intelligence Type

Capability and Perception

Linguistic words and language
Logical-Mathematical logic and numbers
Musical music, sound, rhythm
Bodily-Kinesthetic  body movement control
Spatial-Visual images and space
Interpersonal other people’s feelings
Intrapersonal self-awareness




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